In this month July 1583 Thomas Musgrave wrote to Burghley, on the the subject of the Border Riders. (This is but an excerpt of a full length record)

This document is one of the single most important documents when researching specifically the closing stages of the Reiver period. It is not however an accurate reflection of Reivers period as a whole! In short Musgrave was explaining to Burghley who the ones to watch were. As a result he created an inadvertent Reiver Census of the 1583 covering Liddesdale and Bewcastle. Hundreds of reivers, their abodes, and often their relationships to one another are all listed in great detail.

Sadly, the 250 years of documented Scottish history that preceded this record. Frustratingly historians researching the Reiver period as a whole have latched onto this which is only contextual and relevant to the last 20 years of the Reiver Period. The document is an invaluable resource for the period and is a rare genealogical tool for the period and is attached to this post.

Thomas Musgrave to Burghley, on the Border Riders. [End of. 1583.]

“Because I understand that your honour is not well acquainted with the names of the waters and the dwelling places of the riders and ill doers both of England and Scotland, “I beinge animated by your lordshipes late curtesyes and inquisitions, have made boulde to present this platt both of theire names, dwellynges and allyaunces, one with another, trusting your lordship will accepte my dutye towarde your selfe and good will to my cuntrey, not takinge uppon me to doe any thinge as a good clarke, for that I have not applyed my mynd to so good an exersyes, but have bene traned in service, for defence of her Majesties poore people, that my father had the credyte and charge of, in which I have spente a great parte of my tyme, not without the losse of my bloode, and manye troblesome travels and dangers, but with the losse of my deare frendes and companyons which have bene cruelly murdered by the rebellyous Scottes. Maye it please therefore your lordship to understand, that the ryver called Lyddall, is a fayre ryver, and hath her course doune Lyddisdall, soe as the dale hath the name of the ryver. The ryver is all Scottishe, untill it come to Kyrsopp foote, planted with Ellotes untill it come neare Wheatoughe towre, then the Armestronges inhabit it on bothe sydes, untill it come to Kyrsopp foote, where it takes the dyvysion of the realmes from Kyrsopp—then the Armestronges have the one syde, and the Englishe Fosters the other syde, soe it desendes by the Harlowe on the one syde and the Haythawyt on the other, and runeth into the ryver called Eske. Kyrsopp is a smale becke and desendes from the wast grounde called Kyrsope heade. It devydes the realmes from the meare dyke untill it meat with Lyddall, and is from the head unto the foote without habitacion, and at the foote of it is the fortes. Black Leven water is a littell brooke, and so is Whyt Leven the lyke, and are not in anie place a myle and a halfe dystant one from an other, and are inhabyted with the Nyxons, untill it come to a place called the Blackdobs, and then the Rutligis dwell on bothe the sydes of it, untill it come to a place called the Lukkins of Leven, then it desendes Sowpert, wheare the Taylors have it, thens it desendes the boundes of Sopert, and is inhabyted with Graymes called the Graymes of Leven, and runeth into the ryver of Eske at Gorthe Storys howse called the Lard. Eske is a fayre ryver, and cometh throughe Esdall, and is Scottishe, inhabyted with Battesons of Esdell, untill it come neare a placed called the Langhalme castill and meateth with the water called Use, which waters and dales are bothe my Lorde Maxwells untill it come to Canonby kyrke, and then the Armestronges and Scottishe Graymes have it untill it meete the ryver of Lydall at the Mote skore, where Fargus Grayme his howse standes. Then it taketh the devysyon of the realmes untill it come to a place called Morton rigge where Will of Kinmont dwelleth; then there is a mere dyke that goeth to a ryver called Sarke, then is Eske Englishe on bothe sydes, and Sarke ryver devydes, and there are Graymes on both sydes, the one English, the other Scottishe untill it come to Gretnay, where it meteth Eske and both rune to Bownus, and soe take the sea. I shall therefore sett downe the Ellottes of the head of Lyddall as my skyle will afforde, that your lordship maye knowe the better when their deedes shall come in question.

The Ellottes of Lyddisdall:—Robin Ellot of the Reddhughe, cheife of the Ellotes; Wille Ellot of Harskarth his brother; Gebbe Ellott his brother; Arche Ellot his brother; Gawan Ellot his brother; Hobbe Ellot of the Hewghus; John Ellot his brother; Adam Ellot of the Shaws; Arche Ellot called Fyre the brayes; Gybbe Ellot of the Shaues; Gorth Simson; Martin Ellot called Rytchis Martyn. All theise are Robin Ellotes brethren, or his men that are daly at his comaundement. The grayne of the Ellotes called the Borneheedes:—Joke Ellot called Joke of Ramsgill; Hobbe Ellot called Curst Hobbe; Addam Ellot called Condus; Arche Ellot called Arche of Hill; Joke Ellot of the Hill; Joke Ellot called Halfe loges. The grayne of the Ellotes of the Parke:—Sims John Ellot of the Parke; Will Ellot, gray Wille; Hobbe Ellot called Scotes Hobbe; Jeme Ellot of the Parke; Jeme Ellot called gray Wills Jeme; Hobbe Ellot called Hobbs Hobbe. The grayne of Martyn Ellot of the Bradley hyghe in Lyddall:—Martyn Ellot of the Bradley; Sime Ellot his sonne; Gowan Ellot called the clarke; Hobbe Ellot his brother; Arche Ellot his brother; Joke Ellot called Copshawe; John Ellot of Thornesope; Will Ellot of the Steele; Dand Ellot of the Brandley; John Ellot of the same; Seme Ellot of Hardin. All theise Ellotes and manie more of them are at Robin Ellotes comaundment and dwell betwixt the Armytage in Lyddisdall and Whethough towre—fewe of them marryed with Englishe women.

The Lord of Mangerton and his frendes, and theire allyaunces with England:—Seme Armestronge lord of Mangerton marryed John Fosters daughter of Kyrsope foot, and hath by her issue; Joke Armestronge called the Lordes Joke dwelleth under Denyshill besydes Kyrsope in Denisborne, and maryed Anton Armestronges daughter of Wylyave in Gilsland; John Armestronge called the lordes John, marryet Rytche Graymes sister called Meadope, and he hathe two sonnes ryders in England. Joke his eldest sonne marryed Hobbe Fosters daughter of Kersope alyes; Thome Armestronge called the lordes Tome, dwelleth on a place called Hyghe Morgarton, not marryed with Englande. Runyon Armestronge called the lordes Runyon, dwelleth in a place called the Thornythaite. Rowye Armestronge called the lordes Rowye, dwelleth in Tarrassyde, and marryed oulde Archer Graymes doughter. Seme Armestronge called yonge Seme, dwelleth on the Flates nere Margerton, and marryed Rowye Fosters daughter called Robins Rowye. Thom Armestronge called Sims Thom, dwelleth in the Demayne Holme by Lendall syde, and maryed Wat Storyes daughter of Eske, called Wat of the Hove ende. Dik Armestronge of Dryup, dwelleth nere Hyghe Morgarton, and his wyfe is a Scottishe woamen. Joke Armestronge of the Caufeld dwelleth on the Cawfeld, not marryed in England. Gorthe Armestronge of the Bygams dwelleth on the Bygams, and marryed Will of Carl(i)lles daughter. All theise are the Lorde of Morgertons unckles, or unckles sonnes at the farthest.

The Armestronges of the Howse of Whetaughe towre:—Lance Armestronge the olde lord of Whetaughe; Sime Armestronge the yonge lord his sonne; Andrewe Armestronge called the ladyes Andrewe; Arche Armestronge his brother; Frauncis Armestronge his brother; John Armestronge, called John of Whetaugh; Hobbe Armestronge his sonne, marryed Jeme Fosters daughter of the Stangerth syde; Joke Armestronge his brother; Rynyon Armestronge called Gaudee; Rynyon Armestronge called Rynyon of Twedon; Hector Armestronge of the same; Joke Armestronge of the same. All theise, and more that I cannot call to remembraunce, are the lord of Whethaugh his sonnes and brothers sonnes. Hector Armestronge of the Harlawe and his frendes and allyes,—Hector Armestronge called ould Hector; Hector his sonne called yonge Hector, marryed Fargus Graymes daughter. Wille Armestronge called Hectors Wille; Thome Armestronge called Hectors Tome; Andrewe Armestronge of the Harlawe; Patton Armestronge of the Harlawe; Alexander Armestronge called the Gatwarde, marryed Gawins Wille Fosters daughter. The Armestronges of Melyonton quarter and theire allyes with England:—Arche Armestronge called Rynyons Arche; Gorthe Armestronge sonne to Rynyon; Sime Armestronge, called Whetlesyd, marryed two English women—the fyrst was Robin Fosters daughter, the other Thome Graymes daughter called little Thome. Aby Armestronge sonne to Rynyon; Will Armestronge called Will of Powterlampert; Gorthe Armestronge called yonge Gorthe of Arkyldon, marryed Will of Radhall doughter; Rynyon Armestronge his brother; Martyn Armestronge his brother; Dave Armestronge of Whetlesyd; Andrewe Armestronge of Kyrkton; Hector Armestronge of Chengles; Thome Armestronge his brother marryed Gourth Routlishe daughter of Shetbelt. Elle Armestronge his brother, marryed John Fosters daughter of Krakrop. Eme Armestronge his brother; Arche Armestronge his brother; Riche Armestronge called Carhand; Thome Armestronge called old Thome of Chengles; Abye Armestronge called Thoms Abye; Arche Armestronge his brother; Rynyon Armestronge his brother. The Armestronge of the Langholme and theire allyes with England:—Creste Armestronge goodman of the Langholme castell, marryed Robbye Graymes sister called Robbe of the Feild; John Armestronge of the Hollus, marryed Water Graymes sister of Netherby. Creste Armestronge of Borngles marryed Gorthe Grames daughter called Thomas Gorthe of Eske; Hector Armestronge of the Stobbam; Rich Armestronge called Ekkes Riche. The Armestronges that came of the offspringe of ill Wills Sandy,—Ebye Armestronge the goodman of Waddusles; Wille Armestronge his eldest sonne dwelleth in England, and enjoyeth that land that Kinge Henry the Eight gave old Sand Armestronge; Dave Armestronge his brother; Sande Armestronge his brother; Creste Armestronge called Sandes Creste; Creste Armestronge his sonne, and other two sonnes whose names I knowe not. Wille Armestronge called Kynmont, marryed Hotchane Grames daughter, sister to Hot(c)hans Ritche. Joke Armestronge his sonne; Gorthe Armestronge his brother; Frauncis Armestronge his brother; Thome Armestronge his brother; Rynyon Armestronge called Sandes Rynyon; Thome Armestronge his sonne; Arche Armestronge, called Sandes Arche; Forge Armestronge called Sandes Forge; Joke Armestronge called Castills; Joke Armestronge, called Walls; Dave Armestronge, called Dave of Kannonby, marryed Patyes Gorthes Grams doughter. Wille Armestronge his brother; Jeme his brother; John Armestronge called Skinabake; Thome Armestronge of Rowenborne; Gorthe Armestronge of the same, marryed Jeme Taylors daughter of Harper hill.

Thus have I come downe Lyddell with the Ellotes and Armestronges alonge the Scottishe syde, and I will goe forward downe Eske syde so far as it is Scottishe, and I will goe on to Gratney to the sea, and then come back to the Englishe syde, and so goe downe agayne, that your honor maye be the more parfyte howe they dwell one agaynst the other.

The Urwens and theire alleyaunce with England downe to the Rad Kyrcke.

The Lord of Gratnay marryed Forgus Grams doughter. Watt Urwen of Gratney hill marryed Robin Fosters doughter. Riche Urwen of Greatney hill; Edward Urwen of Gratnaye. Mongo Urwen marryed William Grames doughter of Levne. Will Urwen of Sarke bridge marryed Littell Thome Graymes doughter. Will Urwen of Readhall. Edward Urwen of Kyrke Patrick. Edward Urwen of the Banshaue marryed oulde Riche the Grames doughter of Netherby. Creste Urwen his sonne. Will Urwen of Kyrkconill; Jefrey Urwen of the Bonshawe; Edward Urwen, called yonge Edward, marryed Robbe Grames doughter of the Fald. Gorthe Urwen of the Bonshawe; John Urwen called the Dukes John.

Heare endes the waters ande goe into the sea. And nowe that I have made an ende of the Scottishe syde of the water, I wil begin at Kyrsope, and so downe Lyddall agayne.

The Fosters of Kyrsope and Lyddall, and theire alleyaunce with Scotland:—Frauncis Foster of Kyrsopefoote marryed Martyn Ellotes doughter of the Bradley. Hobb Foster of Kyrsope leys marryed Will Fosters daughter of Grena in Liddisdaill. Rowe Foster marryed Sandes Creste Armestronges doughter. Will Foster called Will of the Closse; Joke Foster of the same; Jeme Foster of the Stango(r)thsyde; Will Foster of the Rone; John Foster his sonne marryed John Armestronges doughter of Whethaughe. Andrewe Foster his brother; Arche Forster his brother; Joke Foster of the Neuk; Andrew Foster of the same; John Foster of the same; Edward Foster of the same; Gorthe Foster of the Stangorthsyde; Andrewe Foster of the same; Jeme Foster called Adams Jeme; Will Foster of the Rotter forde; John Foster his sonne; Davy Foster of the Rotter forde. Theise Fosters dwell all juste agaynst the Armestronges, and deare neighbours. Nowe I will come to the Ruttligis that dwell within them, and then I will on with Soupart and the Graymes till I come to Bownus.

The Ruttligis and there alleyaunce with Scotland which is but little, for that they are every mans praye:—John Rutledge of the Cructborne, slayne by the Scottish ryders. Gerrey his sonne; Addame Rutledge of the Neteclughe; Anton Rutledge of the same; Andrew Rutledge of the same; Dikes Rowe Rutledge; Jeme Rutledge of the Neuk; Jeme Rutledge of the Stubbe; Jeme Rutledge called yonge Jeme; Jarre Rutledge of the Stubbe; Thome Rutledge of Todhills; Allane of the same; Dike Rutledge of the Baley heade; Thome Rutledge of the same. All theise dwell in a place called the Bale, within the Fosters. More Rutlidges dwell downe the water of Levne. John Ruttlidge of the Black Dobs; Nicoll Rutlidge his brother; Andrewe Rutlidge called Black stafe; Gourthe Rutledge of Sletbeke; Jeme Ruttlidge of the same; Will Ruttlidge of Comcrauke; Riche of the same; Johne of the same; Jeme Rutledge of the same; John Ruttlidge of Troughed; Riche Rutlidge of the same; John Rutlidge of the same; Allan Rutlidge his brother; John Dodshone, slayne by the Scottes; Willi Rutlidge of the Lukknes. And manie more that I omyt for tedyousnes to your honor.

Within the Ruttligis, dwell the NYXONS on both the Levens.—Cleme Nixon of the Hole of Levne; Arche Nixson of Kendall; Hobbe Nyxon called Malles Hobbe; John Nixon Daves John; Thome Nixon Henryes Thome; Arche Nixon Wates Arche; Will Nyxon called Beksword; Cudde Nyxon Blankirtluges; Will Nyxon called Byntaby; Cleme Nixon Charles Cleme; Hector Nyxon of the Shate; John Nyxon of the same; John Nyxon Crestes John; Jenkins Ady Nyxon; John Nixon, Wills John; John Nyxon of the Parke.

Within the Nyxons dwell the Nobles, Taylors, some of the Grames, and a fewe Storyes, and are hard by the howse of Bewcastell.

Hobbe Noble; Anthon Noble; Jeme Noble; Arche Noble of the Eshecrofte; Will Noble of the Crew, murthered by old Whethaugh; Mongo Noble; Dike Noble; Gourth Noble; Addame Noble of the Stokasted; Will Taylor of the Graynes; Thom Taylor of the same; Robin Story of the same; Addam Storye of Pelahill; Will Storye of the same; Nicholl Smison; Will Smison slayne; Jenkin Smison; John Rutlidge of Kemorflat; Will Rutlidge of Kyrkbekmouthe; John Makrobin; Arche Scot; John Noble of the Saughes. Theise all dwell within the demayne of Bewcastell.

The Belbank, and it is within the Rutliges and is next unto Gylslande.

Hector Noble; Cleme Rutlidge of the Kyll; Jenkyn Rutlidge of Belbanke; Will Rutlidge of Nunsclughe; Arche Poudam; Thome Poudam; Gorth Rutlidge of Mastthorne; Edde Poudam; Gorthe Poudam; Jenkyn Poudam; Creste Poudam; Dave Poudam; Alexander Poudam; Will Foster of the Lynehalme; Allayne Foster of the same. Theise joyne all uppon Gylslande, my lorde of Arrundalls land; howe be it the furthest parte of Lyddisdall and the furthest parte of Bewcastell are not distant xvj myles, so as the ryders may by night easely come to anie parte of it, and doe theire accustomed evill deedes, and be at theire owne howses longe before daye. They maye, as theire use is, go x or xij myles further into the cuntrey, either uppon my lorde of Arrundalls landes or Christopher Dacres, and make a spoyle, and be at home before daie. Heare your honor maye see howe the Fosters inhabit uttermost, the Rutliges next them, and the Nixons next them, and next the howse of Bewcastell the Nobles and others, as I have sett downe before. So I will pas on to Soupart and downe the water on oure English syde; and within Soupart standes Hethersgill, all Hethringtons, almost to Carlill, beinge my lady Knevetes grounde and William Musgraves, and hath there Skalby castell, a stronge howse and a fayre, very well set for a captayne to lye in—yet it is not kept by anie souldyars, not skantly anie dweller in it.

Soupart, and the Taylors that dwell there.

Sim Taylor; Jerre Taylor, Gibs sonne; Joke Taylor; John Taylor called Chefton; Cudde Taylor called Pottes Cudde; John Taylor called Shanke; Will Rutlidge of the Lukins; Will Rutlidge of the Sinke heade. Thus farr goeth Bewcastell parte of Souport, and the other halfe is inhabyted with Taylors and belonges to William Musgrave, therefore I over pas theire names.

Heare I will note unto your honor, of the Grames and howe they did fyrst inhabit the water of Eske; for within the memorye of man yet beinge, they had no land there, but the Storyes had it and the right thereof, for my old Lorde Daker havinge made a wardein rode, was by Englishmen betrayed, and Scotland had intelligence of his cuminge before he came, and was ready for him, so as he and all the cuntrey was in great perill. My Lorde Dakers, suspectinge olde Riche Grame, did apprehend him, and thought to have executed him for that cause; it was his fortune to eskape out of the pryson, and in short tyme made him selfe cleare of that fact—for he did apprehend the deed doer, beinge a Story. The Storyes, fearinge my lorde Dakers fury, fled and lefte the cuntrey, and went into Northumberland to a place called Killum, where they yet dwell and are a great surname. They beinge gone, Rich Grayme, Fergus his brother, and theire brethren, did devyde theire groundes amongest them, and are growen to a hughe companie of men, that came of thes fyve brethren of the Grames as followeth:—Rich Grame of Netherby and his sonnes, his sonnes sonnes, and their allyaunces with Scotland.—Dik Grame called Riches Dik; Water his sonne marryed Robbe of the Faldes daughter; Dave his brother marryed the larde of Meskyrshin his daughter; Will Grame his brother; Sime Grame his brother; Will Grame second sonne of old Riche, marryed his fyrst wyfe, the larde of Mangertons daughter, and hath nowe Robin Ellotes sister of Lyddisdall; Joke Grame his sonne called Black Joke; Forge Grame his brother; Riche Grame his brother, marryed Wat Bells doughter; Frauncis Grame his brother; Robbe Grame his brother; Frauncis Grame his brother marryed Will Bells doughter; Arche Grayme his brother; Thomas Grame his brother, called coseninge Thomas; Joke Grame his brother called gallotes Joke; Sim Grame his brother; Gorth Grame sonne to old Rich did become Scottishe, and dwelleth at the Red kyrke in Scotland, and was marryed with the Hamiltons. He had by her yssue as followeth:—Riche Grame, he marryed A(r)thor of Carlills daughter; Wat Grame his brother; Gorth Grame his brother; Creste Grame his brother; John Grame his brother. Theise and a nomber more that I cannot calle to memorye, came of old Rich of Netherby, besydes his doughter sonnes, which altogeather be more then a hundreth men besydes women.

Fergus Grame, and those that came of him:—Will Grame, Arthor Grame, theise were both condemned of wilfull murder, and in the rebellion were loused, one by my Lorde Scroup, the other by Sir Simon Musgrave—but shortly after Wille Grame was slayne. Arthor was not askt for anie more, and dwelt on his fathers landes at the Mote, and marryed the larde of Newbye daughter, and hath by her iiijer sonnes not yet men. Riche Grame there brother marryed Allen Baytes doughter in Esdall and hath iiijor or v sonnes by her, not yet men. Gorth Grame his brother marryed Jokke Bells daughter, and hath by her children. Frauncis Grame his brother marryed Edward Urwens doughter of the Bonshawe, and is become Scottishe and dwelleth in Cannonby, sworne denyzant to the Kinge; Jokke Grame called Sandhills his brother; Creste Grame his brother; Hobbe Grame his brother.

Thome Grame brother to Rich and his yssue:—Dave Grame of the Bankehead; Gorth Grame, called Thomas Gorthe; Creste Grame his brother; Arch Grame his brother. Gorth Grame marryed Will of Kynmontes syster, and Thomas Carlton that seketh all the dispyte agaynst me, marryed his doughter—so his wyfes frendes will come on the daie to him and her, and spoyle on the night as they go home—and this my lorde Scrup doth suspect in Charleton. Jokke Grame Gorthes sonne; Sand Grame his brother.

Hutchon Grame and other brethren, and his issue:—Andrew Grame marryed Dave Jonstons doughter in Anerdall; Robbe Grame his brother marryed Edward Urwens doughter of the Bonshawe; Arthor Grame his brother; Riche Grame Andrewes brother, marryed Addame of Carlells doughter in Anerdall.

John Grayme called the Brayd, another brother, had yssue:—Rytche Grame called Medhopp, and marryed Edward Urwens sister of Kyrke Patrick; Will Grame his brother, marryed the larde of Gratney his sister. Jokke Grame called Braddes Jokke; Jokke Grame of Medope marryed Edward Urwens doughter of Bonshawe; Sime Grame his brother; Forge Grame his brother; Frauncis Grame his brother; Jokke Grame his brother.

Will Grame called Will of Carlill an other brother and his yssue:—Arthor Grame of Carlill is Scottishe, and dwelleth by the Red kyrke in Scotland. Forge Grame, called Forge of the Nunery, his brother, dwelleth on the grounde Kinge Henry gave his father; Wille Grame his brother, called Will of Rose-trees; Gorth Grame his brother, called Gorth of Carlill.

Will Grame of the Fald, an other brother of old Riches of Netherby and his issue:—Robbe Grame of the Fald marryed the larde of Hawmans his doughter; Will of the Fald his brother marryed Hector Armestranges doughter of the Harlowe; Gorth Grame of the Fald.

The Grames of Levne, which are great ryders and ill doers to both the realmes:—Dike Grame called Blacke Dike; Will Grame his sonne; Robbe Grame his sonne; Wat Grame his sonne. John Grame of West Linton; Andrew Grame of the Mill; Gorth Grame Parsalls Gorth; Thome Grame son to Alyes Wille; Rany Grame; Humfray Grame; Jorthe Grame, Patyes Jorthe; Will Grame called Dikes Will; Dik Grame of the Woodes; Thome Grame called Markes Thome; Will Grame called Stanyston ryge; Pett Grame called Thomas Payt; Gorth Grame his brother; Rich Grame of Randelenton. These are of Eske:—Gorth Grame of Peretree; Jokke Grame his sonne; Will Grame of the Peretree; Forge Grame of Gravockhall; Blake Jokes Jone Grame.

The crose frendes and varyaunces, one surname with an other:—The Ellotes with the Fenykes; the Armestronges, Grames, and Urwens with the Musgraves; the Grames with the Bells; the Grames with the Maxwells; the Armestronges with the Robsons of Tendall; the Fosters with Je(d)worth Forrest; the Taylors with the Armestronges.

The wast groundes that are west of Bewcastell, which I estimate is broad xviij myles from Whyt Levne head to the hed of Kylder water; and from Kersope hed to the head of Cokket water is further to my judgment. When Leddisdall people make anie invacions to the Fenwickes, they goe without Bewcastell x or xij myles, and goe by the Perlfell without the Horse heade nere Kelder, and so alonge abone Chepchase. When they goe to the water of Tyne, they goe by Kyrsopp head, and without the Gele Crage and by Tarnbek and Bogells Gar and so alonge by the Spye Crage, and the Lampert, and come that waye.

Thus your lordshipe maye see the vewe of our lawles people, who are growne to suche strengthe as almost non dare offende them, they are a people that wilbe Scottishe when they will, and Englishe at theire pleasure; they kepe gentlemen of the cuntrey in feare, care not what evill accions they take in hand, and by theise allyaunces her Majesties horses that should serve the realme are transported into Scotland, the poore are oppressed, for where they owe displeasure they drawe theire plates and veyues theire purpos untill they have made it sure, and bringes in Scotshmen to do execucions of theire pretence, and make them selves clere of those crymes, that theire brothers, sonnes, sisters children, and other nere kynsfolke and allyaunce doe. The poore crye out and are glade to sell theire levinges to them that oppres them, for what it pleaseth them to gyve. I my selfe have sene the Grames assayle my Lorde Scrup being wardin, and have put him and the gentlemen of the cuntrey in great perill, and manie of his companie hurte, yet never anie execucion done for it, but all remytted and forgeven, besydes manie other heighe crymes done, and never anie that loste his lyfe for whatsoever they did. Hardly deare anie gentleman of the cuntrey be of any jury of lyfe and death yf anie of them be indyted, as the justices of that circuit can testefie, they are growne so to seke bloode, for they will make a quarrell for the death of theire grandfather, and they will kyll any of the name they are in feade with. So I (my good lord), ame banyshed my cuntrey for feare of my lyfe, and from my place of service, where I have served this x yeres, and I doe but report my doinges to the gentlemen and trewe people of the cuntrey, and my behavyour to my neighbours. And seinge my lord, I ame banished from my frendes and forst to stande on my gard in land of pease, havinge tyed my selfe to all the Queenes lawes which they dare not answer, my onely trust resteth in your honor to be my helpe, trustinge your lordship will pittie my estate and my olde fathers, and I shalbe bounde daly to pray to God for your good health longe lyfe and incresce of much honor. And what I shall take in hand, I hope my lord and master the Earle of Warwick, and his brother, my lord of Hunsdon and my lord presydent of the north, will gyve theire wordes for me. Thus I have shewed my diligence towardes your lordship: hopinge to have perdone for my rashe presumpsion to your lordship, I gyve over to troble your lordship, prayinge the Almightie to preserve your lyfe health and honor longe in this realme of England.”

Signed: Thomas Musgrave.

(fn. 1) West Tyvidale answereth to the English W. March. Est Tyvedale answereth to the Midle March. In West Tyvydale.—Lard of Buckclugh, a Scott. Lard of Bedoroule, a Trumboll. Lard of Bon Jedwath, a Dowglass. In Est Tyvydale.—Lard of Cesford, a Carr. Lard of Craynston, a Carr.

“In Lyddisdaile.—The cheff ruler is the Lord Bothwell, to whom the Armitag, wherof James Carr is kepar.”

19 pp. Addressed at the head: “To the right honorable and my singuler good lord, the Lord Burleigh lord Heigh Treasorer of England.”

From: ‘Border Papers volume 1: December 1583’, Calendar of Border Papers: volume 1: 1560-95 (1894), pp. 117-127.